Saturday, September 29, 2007

The Atom (continued)

I haven’t, and won’t be going into the conventions used to explain the operation of a battery, the twists and turns that allow science to convert chemical energy into electrical energy and then electrical energy back into chemical energy, just as I won’t be going into the conventions of the Standard Model that torture the explanation of atomic decay. As we see the operation of a single particle with two opposing properties, these made-up and agreed-to conventions will simply slip away as being unnecessary, with at rest motion providing the explanation for the conventional process of electricity that requires electrons to flow in the opposite direction of the current and the conventional processes of atomic decay which have all sorts of made-up particles converting into other made-up particles.
The basic unit of matter, as opposed to the basic particle of matter, is the unit the basic particles form. As all basic particles, and I’ll start to refer them to as electron with at rest motion and affinity propensity, as all electrons have the same amount of at rest motion and affinity propensity, units, under given conditions, are identical in size, with each containing the same number of electrons. The unit is made up of electrons whose affinity propensities have overcome their at rest motion, given identical conditions.
They are physical matter whereas the electron is only big enough to define nonexistence.
Now, note that I said that they are the same size, contain the same number of electrons, given identical conditions. What are the conditions in which a unit of matter exists?
The condition that controls the unit of matter’s size, and even existence, is the field in which that unit exists. While this foreshadows the next chapter on field replacement, it won’t hurt to introduce broad concepts of field, and more specifically, the expanding sphere, which is a concept that we will have to become familiar with because fields expand in all directions and all directions form a sphere.
To introduce fields and expanding spheres, I will use two wooden matches, wooden because they burn a little longer than paper matches and allow us time to perform the simple task of explanation. If we strike one of the matches, what happens? The obvious answer is, the prosperous tip ignites, but note ignite is just a term we use to define the point at which something begins to undergo combustion. All matter has ignition points at which first its molecules and then its atoms begin to break down, come apart.
When the match is ignited, however, it begins to emit light and as light is a small part of the electromagnetic frequency field, we can say the field begins to leave the surface of the match head. Now, science will tell us that the heat and light that make up this field are not only two different things, they are things of no substance. However, as everything we can measure has to be made up of the newly defined electron, what the match head is emitting is a field composed of those electrons. (As we move through the book, we will find that the electron with its two opposing properties can only form into three structures, the atom we will construct in this chapter, the electromagnetic emission field, which we will construct out of measurable facts when we deal with gravity, and the structure that is our minds, which we will construct in that area of the book.)
How can we describe the field the match head is emitting? First, it’s being emitted in all directions, except where it’s blocked, which is at the match stem and our fingers holding it. All directions form a sphere. Spheres are precisely measurable. Their surface area is four times pi times the radius squared. We have to view what is going on around the match head in terms of the field emitted. At each instance, the field that is being emitted gets a little larger as the field behind it is being emitted. While the natural tendency is to call each of the emissions packets, it would be inaccurate because, while each emitted field is connected to the electrons that make it up, it is connected to the electrons making up the field emitted prior to it and will be connected to the electrons making up the field that will be emitted after it.
What we see around the match head is a series of emitted fields, each with a different property, and that property is presence. As each emitted field is precisely measurable, we know the precise presence of each field when compared to the fields ahead of and behind it. As the measurement of the surface area of all the fields have 4 and pi in common, those measurements can be eliminated. The area of a field is determined by the square of the field’s distance from its source, which is common to all the fields.
What does this mean in practical terms? Since the area of the field is increasing with the square of its distance from its source, the field that was emitted has to cover an increasing area, and that means the field is diminishing with the square of its distance from where it was emitted. If that measurement sounds familiar, it’s because it’s the measurement for gravity. In any event, we are concerned here with the presence of the field, and that presence is diminishing with the square of the distance from its source. This is an expanding sphere and I can’t impress expanding spheres enough because they not only explain gravity, they explain how we can see what we see, both subjects addressed later on.
Here, we are only concerned about what is happening to the field, as evidenced by its presence, and we find that the heat and light, expanding over the surface of an expanding sphere, is diminishing inversely with the square of the distance from the sphere’s source, the radius of the sphere. This little fact, that light diminishes inversely with the square of its distance, is an inconvenient fact to an astronomy that likes to brag it can see from the beginning of time to the end of the universe. Anything that diminishes inversely with the square of its distance eventually expands out of existence, putting the bogus parallax measurements on which all star distances are measured in deep question (the rate of all possible errors in parallax is almost six times the best measurement).
How does this diminishing field affect the atom we are constructing out of units?
We have one match lit and emitting a field that is diminishing inversely with the square of its distance from the source of the field, the match head. If we take the second match and hold it say five inches from the first, nothing happens. However, if we start to move the second match head toward the first match, what are we doing? We are immersing the match into a stronger field the closer we come to the first match. Soon we get deep enough into the first match’s field that the binding holding the molecules and even the atoms together can no longer do so, for reasons explained in the next chapter. The second match reaches its ignition point and bursts into flame.
The point of this exercise is to demonstrate what I meant by “given identical conditions.” We live in fields that have many sources. The sun’s field, of course, is pretty evident, but the Earth is also emitting a field, even if science doesn’t recognize it. It’s common sense that something with a molten core would be emitting, but science never follows its conclusions through, with scientific fields being so narrow that the boundary of one never conflicts with the boundary of another (unless its mass gravity, with which no science can conflict).
When we measure the matter on the surface of the sun, we measure hydrogen, the source of science’s analogy of the sun to a hydrogen bomb (brilliant analogy that). We are measuring hydrogen in a way, because hydrogen is composed, or assumed to be composed of, a single unit, and a single unit is what would result if matter were placed in the highest field in nature, the surface of the sun. No matter what the sun is composed of, or what happens to fall into the sun, the matter is immediately reduced on the surface first to its molecules, then its atoms and then its units. What happens to the units? The units are themselves unraveling, which is to say, the at rest motion of the electrons making up the units is overcoming the affinity propensities of those electrons and those electrons are escaping the surface of the sun traveling at their at rest speed, the speed of light or the electromagnetic emission field. A science that doesn’t think matter emits what it is composed of when it is reduced by combustion isn’t a science, it’s a fantasy world.
Now we get our first glimpse of the cycle of the universe. If the basic unit of matter unravels in a strong field, how does that matter form in the first place, how do the affinity propensities overcome the at rest motion so they form into the units?
As the electrons come apart on the surface of the sun, or on any star for that matter, they form into a structure dictated by their properties, which we’ll describe when we discuss gravity. They begin to expand over the surface of an expanding sphere and as they do so, they diminish inversely with the square of the distance traveled. The same number of electrons covers greater and greater areas of the surface of the sphere. They reach a point at which they cannot maintain their cohesion on that surface and they began to break apart, the emission field begins to break down, producing freely moving electrons which I refer to as ambient electrons because we live in a world of ambient electrons and they explain a lot of the phenomena we experience and will be describing.
In space however, we have to assume that there are areas that contain no fields. It is this absence of a field that is the “given identical conditions” in which the units originally form to produce the atom that is the predecessor of all the atoms that we find in our periodic table of elements.
The cycle of the universe is quite simple: Matter formation, combustion, expanding emission field, dissipation and matter reformation. What happens between combustion and matter reformation are the galaxies we see, the solar systems that give rise to life, in short, the universe, which is a constant engine of the birth and movement of matter that gives rise to life.
So how do the basic units in the absence of a field form into matter and what happens to them when they combust?
(To be continued)

Friday, September 21, 2007

The Atom (continued)

It’s clear that Rutherford took certain criteria that his model of an atom had to meet and then designed the atom to meet those criteria, but by failing to take into consideration the likes repel aspect of putting protons together in the nucleus and accounting for the motion of the electrons around the nucleus, his model is insufficient. There’s another area in which Rutherford’s model failed. That was in modeling an atom that could produce light, a failure that a whole new field of science, quantum mechanics, was created to gloss over.
We want to build an atom that explains solid matter and accounts for weight. In addition, the atom must explain the basic feature of gravity, that atoms of different complexity fall at the same weight but require different forces to move against gravity. We also want an atom that will account for atomic decay as well as for matter's ability to produce light.
As we shall see, such an atom forms naturally from a single elementary particle with the opposing properties of affinity propensity and at rest motion, but before we do that, we need to explore the properties of this particle as opposed to the properties of the electron because what we are dealing with when we refer to the single particle is actually a modified electron. It is the electron we are familiar with, but one to which we have failed to assign the correct properties.
First, the electron science models has no motion of its own. This is simply absurd on its face. We know electrons move in a circuit and that circuits have neither a positive nor negative poll. In the case of inductive induced current, current that travels through a copper wire whose ends have been brought into contact, any electron that would be moving through the circuit would have to travel to both a positive and a negative pole if the circuit had poles, which it doesn’t.
The notion that electrons need polarity to move was a primitive concept made up by the early inventors and users of the battery, where the motive force appears to be the potential differences in the elements used but which merely is the flow of electrons between two potential differences, where the different potential differences seek to balance themselves (that’s how batteries wear out, the potential difference of the elements is no longer sufficient to produce a current flow).
Science knows for a fact that electrons orbit the nucleus of the modeled atom, but has no explanation for the electron's motion. It doesn’t even make an attempt, and it certainly ignores the likes repel rule applied to the protons. Why would electrons orbit the nucleus of an atom if they repelled one another?
So, it seems to be self-evident that the at rest motion we are talking about with the basic elementary particle is the at rest motion of the electron.
Now let’s tackle the likes repel, opposites attract fiction. If a magnet is allowed to move freely, one end always points to the North Pole. While it is only recently that science realized that naming this end of the magnet the north pole of the magnet contradicted it’s own likes repel dictate, the end of magnets that are designated north do repel each other. Perhaps science’s blindness in this area was the result of renaming the north south poles as negative and positive when they were applied to provide a reason for the movement of electricity in a battery. When the south end of a magnet come near the north end of a magnet, they attract, and it is this concept, a transfer of north south to negative and positive, that provided a basis for the movement of electricity. The positively charged particles were being attracted to the negative pole of the battery (now, as noted, the negative to the positive).
If the electrons that are the particles that represent electricity have at rest motion, there is no reason for polarity. But let’s look at the electrons with polarity in an electric wire. As we shall see, electrons move to where there is a deficit of affinity propensity, which is to say, they move from where they aren’t needed to where they are if a path is provided for them to move in. In the battery, two elements with potential differences have terminals. When connected, electrons flow from the element with the greater potential difference to the element with the lesser potential difference. (Potential difference, the electric property of an element, alters with temperature, a fact that we’ll later use to explain the origin of life, and a fact that also explains why your car batter won’t start no a very cold morning.)
The direction of flow is what’s important in the production of electricity. When electricity is produced by generators, it is attracted to the loads using the electricity, because those loads, by definition, have a deficit of electrons and therefore a deficit of affinity propensity.
Can you imagine electrons moving in a conductor if they all repelled each other? They wouldn’t be going anywhere because they’d all be trying to get away from each other before they even tried to get to the load.
For electricity to move through a conductor, it has to be cohesive, its particles have to all move in unison. To move in unison, they can’t be trying to repel each other, they have to come together, be a single flow.
The notion that opposites attract is probably as deep seated in our minds as the notion that gravity is proportional to and therefore a property of mass. It’s extremely difficult to visualize an electric world with no polarity, but as the opposing properties of at rest motion and affinity propensity explain physical reality after physical reality, the concept that there has to be opposites to obtain movement in the subatomic world drops away.
We have to remember that science does not have any notion of why magnets act as they do, and yet they willy-nilly apply surface explanations that explain nothing to other physical realities, clouding the understanding of those other physical realities. (We’ll be able to picture the forces at work in magnets after we construct the atom.)
The simple reality is, electrons attract one another. It is the only way to provide a physical explanation for electricity. Once sufficient electrons have been collected in a conductor, that conductor can be hooked up to a load and the electrons will, at their at rest speed less the resistance of the conductor, travel to the area of the conductor where there is a deficit of electrons, the load.
The conductor has to be made up of the atoms of an element that, when formed, can give up its own electrons to the flow while the flow replaces the electrons, providing the stability to keep the atoms of the element together (we’ll understand more about this in the next chapter on field replacement. Suffice it to say, if the element’s atoms won’t or can’t give up electrons, it can’t conduct, and if the electrical flow is too high for the conductor, its atoms will separate, the conductor will melt.)
(To be continued)

Saturday, September 15, 2007

The Atom

Thomas Edison ran into a problem when he was attempting to create the light bulb. He was using a carbon filament and was vexed by the fact that the carbon was coating the bulb. He decided that the electricity was not only flowing though the filament, it was flowing through the evacuated bulb. He made a bulb with a third electrode in an attempt to divert the flow and stop the blackening. He found that electricity did flow to this third filament but it didn’t stop the blackening, so he abandoned the effort, patenting the new bulb in the process.
In the light bulb, electricity flows through a filament. The filament, according to science, produces resistance to the flow of electricity and heats up, producing light. In short, light isn’t made up of the electricity that produces it. The loss of electricity is due to resistance, not to it being converted to light. If the filament in the bulb is separated, the filament with the incoming flow of electrons is called a cathode because it produces a stream of what are now known to be electrons. The cathode ray tube is the basis of television.
If, instead of evacuating the bulb entirely, a small amount of gas is left inside it, Edison’s effect can actually be seen as the gas becomes a conductor for the electrons with paths of electrons being emitted by the cathode lighting up. J. J. Thomson was the first to experiment with these mysterious rays called cathode rays that the cathode produced in gas. (Edison’s effect is grudgingly acknowledged as the basis of the diode, the old electronic tubes that were replaced by transistors, but not at all for the cathode ray tube that basically operates on the effect.)
Thomson was the first to demonstrate that cathode rays could be deflected by an electric field and were therefore negatively charged particles. So we have electricity going into a modified light bulb and producing flows of electrons. Why does science insist that the filament of the light bulb is not giving off electrons, but something else? As we get into the topic of the structure of light latter in the book, we’ll see that light is a structured from of the elementary particle described in the last chapter, and that elementary particle is the electron operating in the light bulb. It just seems to me that someone, somewhere, once it was determined that a light bulb could be modified in a way that simply separated its filament and produced flows of electrons, newly named by Thomson, would have wondered whether light was made up of electrons, but no, science thinks in compartmentalized structures that excludes thought. Besides, light is not deflected by an electric current (or at least by the electric currents of the day).
At the same time all of this was going on, people were discovering and experimenting with radioactive matter, matter that decayed and in the process gave off bits of itself. One of the bits was called an alpha particle, and alpha particles were what Rutherford, the constructor of our vision of the atom, enjoyed experimenting with. He noticed that when the alpha particles were directed at gold foil, some of them were deflected. Up until this point, everyone pictured the atom as a small, round ball. However, when Rutherford found a percentage of his alpha particles deflected by the foil, he reasoned that they were bouncing off something. As most of the atoms were passing through the foil with only minor deflection, he reasoned that the material was made up of atoms and those atoms were something other than little round balls.
Rutherford’s experiments with radiation had already identified an additional particle, the beta particle that he later determined to be an electron, so he already had Thomson’s electron in mind when he set about analyzing the nature of the structure of matter the alpha rays were encountering. He started to visualize a nucleus with shells of electrons orbiting it. Dimitri Mendeleev had long before put together the periodic table of elements, arranging them by weight. Rutherford accounted for weight, what is called mass today, by creating the neutron. To keep the electrons in orbit around the nucleus, he created the proton.
This model had two major defects as pointed out in the last chapter. There was no explanation for the electrons motion and protons, being positive, were supposed to follow the likes repel rule, and therefore, couldn’t stay together in the nucleus. Science solved the latter problem by creating a strong force to hold the protons together, but has totally ignored the source of the motion of the orbiting electrons.
(To be continued)

Friday, September 7, 2007

An Elementary Particle with Two Properties (conclusion)

The first question, of course, is what two properties should the particle have? If you look at the properties science makes up and assigns to particles, you’ll end up scratching your head. As in any endeavor, the first thing to do is to make sure we’re asking the right question. Here we want a particle that will describe all of operating reality, so the question becomes, what do we know about operating reality?
We know that operating reality, the galaxies and star systems they contain, are located in empty space, or in my vernacular, nothing. Going back to the definition of the universe in the Introduction, the universe is essentially matter in nothing. That matter comes in two forms, the solid matter that makes up the stars and the planets and the matter that make up the electromagnetic emission fields active stars and planets produce. As we are hypothesizing a universe that is made up of a single particle, the matter and whatever makes up the electromagnetic emission fields, are made up of the same particle, the basic element of matter.
The planets and stars and the electromagnetic emission fields they produce are grossly different manifestations of the same particle, but they should tell us something about the properties that particle needs if it is going to explain both.
Starting with solid matter, what do we know about it? We know one thing and one thing only about solid matter. Whatever it’s made of is conglomerated together and if it conglomerated together, it is held together by something. In today’s science, that something is the strong force, but the strong force wasn’t made up to hold matter together, it was made up to explain why like-charged protons in the nucleus of the atom didn’t fly apart. There is no explanation what holds the neutrons together other than, perhaps, the weak force made up to explain atomic decay.
With matter being held together, the basic particles that makes up matter must be attracted to one another. That’s a pretty simple proposition, so why not just make it one of the properties of the elementary particle?
It’s not a property without its limitations. I always find this difficult to explain, but using magnets as an example, let’s lay out several hundred identical coin-shaped magnets on a table. If we pick up two of the magnets, they will readily clamp together. If we add a third, it will clamp together with a little less force. Holding the magnetic chain vertically, we keep adding magnets to the bottom of the chain. We eventually reach a point at which the chain will hold no more magnets. The weight of the overall combination has overcome the ability of the magnetic force to hold it together.
What should we call the property of attraction of the elementary particle we are conceptualizing? I long ago termed this property the particle’s affinity propensity. Instead of saying the particles attracted one another because that's too much like opposites attract, I defined affinity propensity as the particle's affinity for occupying the same space as any other particle. While that gets us away from saying the particles attract one another, that’s clearly the result of each particle pressing to occupy the space of all other particles.
What does this have to do with our magnetic chain?
When two particles come together, the combined structure of the two has twice the affinity propensity of each individual particle. However, some of the affinity propensity of each particle has been used up holding the combined structure together. Of course, we aren’t dealing with a table full of magnets, we are dealing with particles the size of electrons, very, very small bits. In fact, I define the elementary particle’s size as being just large enough to define nothingness because we have defined nothingness by the existence of matter.
As more and more particles come together into a sphere, and they form a sphere because particles form on a surface in all directions, and all directions of a surface form a sphere, each particle adds affinity propensity but uses up some of the affinity propensity of both itself and the sphere in holding it to the growing sphere. Like the weight overcoming the magnetic chain’s magnetic ability to stay together, eventually the sphere doesn’t have enough affinity propensity to attract additional particles and it is as large as it can get.
This brings up two very important points, First, because all of the elementary particles are identical with an identical amount of affinity propensity, the resulting spheres, I refer to them as units, will be identical, or close to identical, all other factors considered (and we’ll cover those factors in the next chapter on the atom).
Of primary importance, though, the question that should have been hovering in the background of everyone’s mind is, what force are they holding themselves together against? The magnets were fighting weight, but here weight isn’t a factor. Why don’t these particles, with their affinity propensity, simply form a gigantic sphere, soaking up all the elementary particles in the universe into one big structure? What are they fighting against? What force is attempting to keep them from forming into the structure in the first place so that the particles have to use up their affinity propensity to form into the structure?
To answer this question, and find the second property of our basic particle, we have to look at the second form of matter, the electromagnetic emissions produced by the stars and the planets undergoing combustion. And here, we’ll have to take a small side trip into the word combustion. Most people are under the mistaken assumption that combustion is defined by the presence of oxygen, that when something burns, when it is undergoing combustion, it requires oxygen. This, of course, rules out calling what stars do as combusting, or undergoing combustion.
This sets combustion off from the fission or fusion process. Using labored reasoning, and the fact that science can only measure the elements on the surface of stars, and that element is hydrogen, science concluded, after the successful fusion process that supposedly occurs in a hydrogen bomb, that the sun's emissions are the result of fusion. Thus, in using a single particle to explain fire here on Earth (for which, by the way, science has no coherent explanation) and the fire that is burning on the surface of the sun, I have the same gut reaction I get when I claim that both light and electricity have induction fields around them (a subject that will become extremely important when we discuss gravity). Instead of attempting to follow my reasoning, and evidence, to the contrary, people tend to discount everything when I say that stars and the planets are combusting.
However, the dictionary definition of combustion is a chemical process that produces heat and light. It uses oxidation as an example, but the definition of a chemical process is not necessarily limited to oxidation. While fusion is not considered to be a chemical process, the scientific explanation for fusion is totally conceptual, and its application to the surface of a star ad hoc, we call it a hydrogen bomb, stars have hydrogen on their surfaces, therefore they’re the same. Science has no coherent explanation for what is happening for when something is burning. When we get to the chapter on field replacement, we’ll see exactly what makes a log burn on Earth and the sun burn in space.
Returning to the electromagnetic emissions themselves, what is the one thing we know about them that is factual? Things like being wave particles are conceptual, and specific characteristics such as those of light (diffraction grating, for instance) are factual, but not general. What is the one fact we know about the electromagnetic spectrum that is universal?
We know its speed!
What does knowing its speed tell us? It tells us that light moves from one place to another. Under Newton’s particle view, just like the planets, light didn’t need a source of motion. When light became a wave, its movement could easily be ascribed to a disturbance in an aether made up to account for its wave features. Toward the end of the 19th century, Maxwell produced his equations that placed light within the confines of the electromagnetic spectrum (light was still a wave), but these equations do not explain why light moves other than to produce a hazy picture of magnetic and electrical fields interacting with each other.
In short, no one has an inkling why light, or electromagnetic emissions, move.
Why not just admit that they are made up of a particle (which Einstein proved with his photoelectric effect), drop the wave idiocy, and assign the property of motion to the particle?
If we adopt motion as a property of our particle, then we have something that the affinity propensity has to overcome and which would therefore limit the size of the units the particles would form. We have a single particle with two opposing properties, one property tending to bring the particles together, the other seeking to have the particles return to their normal speed, which I call the particle’s at rest speed because when the particle is traveling at what we consider the speed of light, it is at rest with itself in so far as being able to move without hindrance. What better situation. All of matter has stored energy in it, the energy inherent in each of the particles that make up the matter, to overcome the affinity propensity and return to its at rest speed.
Isn’t this simply a physical description of Einstein’s e=m equation where the square of the speed of light merely demonstrates the staggering amount of energy stored, or rather at rest motion, overcome, by the affinity propensities that hold the matter together?
Of course, as soon as we have opposing properties in the same particle, we have two overriding questions, how did the particles come together in the first place or how do the affinity propensities overcome the at rest motion and how do the particles come apart or how does the at rest speed of the particles overcome their affinity propensities? How does matter come form in the first place and dissipate in electromagnetic emissions?
We won’t be able to answer these questions until we construct an atom and then subject it to field replacement.